COMMENT LES ROBOTS SE SENTIRENT?

La notion des capteurs a toujours été présente depuis l’apparition de l’être humain, en effet dieu nous a créer et nous a donné un cerveau qui traite les informations venant des capteurs biologiques comme les yeux, le nez, l’oreille …etc. leur rôle est primordiale vue que grâce à eux nous pouvons effectuer plusieurs opérations sans problème. Prenons  un simple cas c’est quand nous voulons marcher tout d’abord nous devons recevoir une information de l’œil qui nous indique qu’il n y’a pas d’obstacle donc nous  pouvons  donner l’ordre au pied de marcher sans rien craindre.

La réalisation des robots s’est inspirée de l’être humain et donc pour avoir un robot qui effectue des taches précises  il a besoin de plusieurs capteurs pour son bon fonctionnement.

Donc nous pouvons définir un capteur comme étant un dispositif de la chaîne d’acquisition dans une chaîne fonctionnel, il prélève une information physique réelle et la transforme en une information utilisable par l’unité de traitement, cette information pourra être logique (2 états), numérique (valeur discrète), ou analogique (Valeur variante).

Schéma bloc d'un capteur

On distingue entre les capteurs actifs, ils ont besoin dans la plupart des cas d’apport d’énergie extérieure pour fonctionner et les capteurs passifs qui sont utilisé lorsque le phénomène physique qui est utilisé pour la détermination du mesurande effectue directement la transformation en grandeur électrique.

Le choix des capteurs diffère d’un cas à l’autre  selon le robot que nous voulons réaliser ou selon l’application souhaitée si nous voulons réaliser un robot  suiveur de ligne je peux utiliser un capteur qui permet le suivie de la ligne mais si nous voulons améliorer ce robot pour qui soit aussi un robot qui évite  les obstacles surement nous devons ajouter un capteur permettant cette amélioration.

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